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Estimated U.S. Average Vehicle Emissions Rates per Vehicle by Vehicle Type Using Gasoline and Diesel

(Grams per mile)

Dataset Excel: 

Estimates are by calendar year.  Vehicles types are defined as follows: light-duty vehicles (passenger cars); light-duty trucks (two axle, four tire); heavy-duty vehicles (trucks with more than two axles or four tires); motorcycle (highway only).

Emissions factors are averages based on the national average age distributions, vehicle activity (speeds, operating modes, vehicle-miles traveled fractions, starts and idling), temperatures, inspection/maintenance and antitampering programs, and average gasoline fuel properties in that calendar year. Total HC includes exhaust and evaporative emissions.

Average emissions per vehicle rates assume a fleet comprised exclusively of gasoline and diesel vehicles.  Gasoline-electric hybrids are accounted for in the values for gasoline vehicles.

This table was generated using MOVES2014a, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) mobile source emissions factor model. More information on MOVES is available at /

Data for this update are based on new categories and are not comparable to previous releases. Changes retroactively applied to the data for previous years to provide consistent comparisons over time.


KEY: CO = carbon monoxide; HC = hydrocarbons; NOx = nitrogen oxides; PM2.5 = particulate matter with diameter <= 2.5 micrometers.


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Transportation and Air Quality, personal communication, Apr. 6, 2018.