|State||Effective1||Enforcement2||Base fine3||Seat belt required||Exemptions|
|Alabama||7/18/1991||Primary||Not more than $25||Front||All||Medical reasons, model year <1965, rural mail carriers/ newspaper delivery vehicles, vehicles operating in reverse.|
|Alaska||9/12/1990||Primary||Not more than $15||All||16 years and older||School buses, emergency vehicles, mail or newspaper delivery vehicles, non-highway vehicles (generally, off-road or snowmobiles).|
|Arizona||1/1/1991||Secondary||Not more than $10||All Front||5-15 years 5 years and older||Designed for >10 passengers, model year <1972, rural mail carriers, medical reasons.|
|Arkansas||7/15/1991||Primary||Not more than $25||Front||All||Model year < 1972. Not required when an emergency exists that threatens the life of a child or person operating a motor vehicle. Any child who is physically unable because of a medical condition (as certified by a physician) is exempted.|
|California||1/1/1986||Primary||Not more than $20||All||16 years and older||Medical reasons, emergency vehicles, rural postal service vehicles, newspaper delivery vehicles, recycling vehicles, taxis.|
|Colorado||7/1/1987||Secondary||$65||Front||All||Ambulence crew, peace officer, medical reasons, passenger buses, school buses, postal service vehicles, delivery and pickup service vehicles.|
|Connecticut||1/1/1986||Primary||$504||Front||All||Medical reasons, emergency vehicles other than fire-fighting apparatus, postal service vehicles, newspaper delivery vehicles.|
|Delaware||1/1/1992||Primary||$25||All||16 years and older||Medical reasons, postal service vehicles, tractors, off-highway vehicles, electric personal assistive mobility devices.|
|District of Columbia||12/12/1985||Primary||$50||All||16 years and older||Vehicles manufactured before July 1, 1966; medical reasons; all seat belts occupied;seating for >8 people, taxis (6pm-6am).|
|Florida||7/1/1986||Primary||$30||All Front||6-17 years 6 years and older||Medical reasons; newspaper delivery vehicles; solid waste/ recyclable collection service vehicles working designated routes; persons traveling in the living quarters of a recreational vehicle or a space within a truck body primarily intended for merchandise or property; school buses; buses that transport for compensation; farm tractors or implements of husbandry; trucks >26,000 lb.|
|Georgia||9/1/1988||Primary||Not more than $15||All Front||8-17 years 18 years and older||Pickups, vehicles designed for >10 passengers, off-road vehicles, vehicles used for frequent stops (all seats), rural postal vehicles, newspaper delivery vehicles, emergency vehicles, driver in reverse, taxis, public transit vehicles.|
|Hawaii||12/16/1985||Primary||$45||All Front||8-17 years 15 years and older||Bus or school bus >10,000 lb, emergency vehicles, taxicabs. DOT may establish additional exemptions.|
|Idaho||7/1/1986||Secondary||$10||All||7 years and older||Vehicles >8,000 lb, mail carriers, implements of husbandry, motorcycles.|
|Illinois||1/1/1988||Primary||Not more than $25||All Front||18 years and under if driver is under 19 years 16 years and older||Motorcycles, vehicles that stop frequently for medical reasons, rural letter carriers, model year <1965.|
|Indiana||7/1/1987||Primary||Not more than $25||All||All||Medical reasons, vehicles that stop frequently, farm vehicles, RVs, postal vehicles, non-drivers in parades, public utility vehicles, towing recovery vehicles, occupant other than operator of vehicle used by a public utility in an emergency.|
|Iowa||7/1/1986||Primary||$50||All Front||17 years and under 18 years and older||Delivery vehicles that do not exceed 25 mph between stops, bus passengers, medical reasons, model year <1965, emergency vehicles, motorcycles, rural letter carriers.|
|Kansas||7/1/1986||Primary7||$106||All Front||14-17 years 18 years and older||Designed for >10 people, truck >12,000 lb, off-road vehicles, postal vehicles, vehicles delivering newspapers.|
|Kentucky||7/15/1994||Primary||Not more than $25||All||All||Designed for >10 people, farm trucks registered for agricultural use only and with gross weight 2,000 lb or greater, motorcycles.|
|Louisiana||7/1/1986||Primary||$25||All||13 years and older||Vehicles with gross weight >10,000 lb, utility vehicles traveling <20 mph, model year <1981, postal vehicles, farm vehicles, persons delivering newspapers.|
|Maine||12/26/1995||Primary||$50||All||All||Medical reasons, rural mail carriers, persons delivering newspapers, postal vehicles, passengers riding in taxi or limousine for hire.|
|Maryland||7/1/1986||Primary||Not more than $26||All Front||15 years and under 16 years and older||“Historical” vehicles, for-hire vehicles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, vehicles delivering mail, vehicles built before June 1, 1964.|
|Massachusetts||2/1/1994||Secondary||$258||All||All||Buses, trucks 18,000 lb or more, taxis, utility vehicles, model year <1966, postal vehicles, farm vehicles, authorized emergency vehicles, side-facing seat in car owned for antique collecting.|
|Michigan||7/1/1985||Primary||$25||Front||All||Medical reasons, taxis, buses, school buses, postal service vehicles, model year <1965, commercial vehicles making frequent stops.|
|Minnesota||8/1/1986||Primary||$25||All||All||Farm pickup trucks, postal vehicles, commercial vehicles making frequent stops and going <25 mph between stops, vehicles driving in reverse, persons riding in a vehicle in which all the seating positions equipped with seat belts are occupied by other persons in seat belts, model year <1965, medical reasons.|
|Mississippi||7/1/1994||Primary||$25||Front||All||Vehicles driving in reverse, farm vehicles, medical reasons, buses, postal vehicles, utility meter readers’ vehicles, all-terrain vehicles, vehicles designed to carry >15 persons, trailers.|
|Missouri||9/28/1985||Secondary (primary for <16 years old)||Not more than $1010||Front||All||Vehicles designed for >10 people, trucks >12,000 lb, postal service vehicles, vehicles requiring frequent entry or exit, agricultural vehicles.|
|Montana||10/1/1987||Secondary||$20||All||All||Medical reasons, motorcycles, taxis, vehicles making frequent stops, occupants of motor vehicle in which all seat belts are being used by other occupants.|
|Nebraska||1/1/1993||Secondary||$25||All Front||16 years and under 18 years and older||Taxis, mopeds, motorcycles, emergency vehicles, model year <1973, parade vehicles.|
|Nevada||7/1/1987||Secondary||Not more than $25||All||All||Medical reasons, public transportation vehicles, postal service vehicles, emergency vehicles, delivery vehicles not exceeding 15 mph. Any vehicle or seating position if the State determines compliance is impractical.|
|New Hampshire||n/a||No law for persons 18 years or older (primary for <18 years old)||$50 for persons <18 years old||All||17 years and younger||n/a|
|New Jersey||3/1/1985||Primary (secondary for rear seat occupants)||$20||All||All||Vehicles manufactured before 1966, medical reasons, rural letter carriers, fewer belts than seats.|
|New Mexico||1/1/1986||Primary||$25||All||All||Vehicles >10,000 lb, medical reasons, rural letter carriers.|
|New York||12/1/1984||Primary||Not more than $50||All Front||15 years and under All||Buses, school buses, taxis, liveries, emergency, rural letter carriers.|
|North Carolina||10/1/1985||Primary (secondary for rear seat occupants)||$25.50 ($10 ofr rear seat)||All||All||Medical reasons, farm vehicles, postal vehicles, designated commercial vehicles, delivery vehicles traveling <20 mph, trash/recycling trucks.|
|North Dakota||7/14/1994||Secondary||Not more than $20||All Front||17 years and under All||Designed for >10 people, farm vehicles, rural mail carriers, medical reasons, all front seat belts in use by other occupants.|
|Ohio||5/6/1986||Secondary||$30 driver/$20 passenger||All Front||8-14 years 15 years and older||Postal service vehicles, medical reasons, vehicles delivering newspapers.|
|Oklahoma||2/1/1987||Primary||$20||All Front||All 12 years and older||Farm vehicles, RVs, motorcycles, motorized bicycles, postal service vehicles, school buses, taxicabs, emergency vehicles.|
|Oregon||12/7/1990||Primary||No more than $250||All||16 years and older||Vehicles in interstate commerce, designed for >15 passengers, newspaper and mail vehicles, meter and transit vehicles, for-hire vehicles, trash trucks, emergency vehicles, taxicab operators.|
|Pennsylvania||11/23/1987||Secondary||$10||All Front||8-17 years 18 years and older||Vehicles manufactured before 1966, medical reasons, trucks >7,000 lb, rural letter carriers, delivery vehicles, vehicles traveling <15 mph.|
|Rhode Island||6/18/1991||Primary12||$85||All||18 years and older||Vehicles manufactured before 1966, medical reasons, postal service vehicles.|
|South Carolina||7/1/1989||Primary||Not more than $25||All||All||Medical reasons, emergency vehicles, postal service vehicles, delivery vehicles, parade vehicles; school, church, or day care buses; vehicles except taxis, vehicles in which all seating positions with seat belts are already occupied, persons occupying vehicles not originally equipped with seat belts.|
|South Dakota||1/1/1995||Secondary||$25||All Front||17 years and under 18 years and older||Motorcycles, motorized bicycles, vehicles manufactured before 1973, medical reasons, passenger buses, school buses, farm vehicles, rural mail carriers, newspaper or periodical delivery vehicles.|
|Tennessee||4/21/1986||Primary||Not more than $5013||All||All||Vehicles >8,500 lb, rural letter carriers, utility workers, newspaper delivery vehicles, automobile salespersons who drive <50 miles per day on average, parade vehicles, hayrides crossing a highway from one field to another if operated at <15 mph.|
|Texas||9/1/1985||Primary||$50||All||All||Farm vehicles <48,000 lb, postal service vehicles, newspaper delivery, meter readers.|
|Utah||4/28/1986||Secondary (primary for drivers and occupants 18 years and younger)||Not more than $45||All||All||Vehicles manufactured before 1966, medical reasons, all seats occupied or person is riding in a seating position not equipped with seat belts.|
|Vermont||1/1/1994||Secondary (primary for drivers and occupants 17 years and younger)||$25||All||All||Buses, taxis, rural mail carriers, delivery vehicles traveling <15 mph, emergency vehicles, farm tractors, vehicles ordered by emergency personnel to evacuate persons from stricken area.|
|Virginia||1/1/1988||Secondary (primary for passengers 17 years and younger in all seats)||$25||All Front||17 years and under 18 years and older||Medical reasons, trucks >10,000 lb, school buses, motor homes, taxis, police vehicles enforcing parking or transporting prisoners, law enforcement officers when seat belts are impractical, rural mail carriers, newspaper delivery vehicles, utility meter readers, commercial vehicles making frequent stops.|
|Washington||6/11/1986||Primary||$124||All||All||Medical reasons, vehicles designed for >10 people; when all designated seating positions are occupied; vehicles exempted by State regulation, including farm construction or commercial vehicles making frequent stops.|
|West Virginia||9/1/1993||Secondary||Not more than $25||All Front||8-17 years All||Motorcycles, vehicles designed for >10 people, vehicles manufactured before 1967, medical reasons, rural mail carriers, trailers. All seat belts in use and vehicle contains more passengers than total number of seat belts or other safety devices installed in compliance with Federal motor vehicle safety standards.|
|Wisconsin||12/1/1987||Primary||$10||All||All||Emergency vehicles in which compliance could endanger passngers; taxis, farm trucks engaged in farming, rural mail carriers, land surveyors.|
|Wyoming||6/8/1989||Secondary||Not more than $2516||All||All||Medical reasons, postal vehicles; excess passengers exempted if all seats occupied.|
1Effective date of first belt law in the state.
2Primary enforcement enables police officers to stop vehicles and write citations whenever they observe a violation of the seat belt law. Secondary enforcement allows police officers to write a citation for seat belt infractions only after stopping a vehicle for some other traffic infraction.
3Additional processing and surcharge fees are likely to apply.
4The word “All” used in this category means everyone must be restrained. For children, that may be in a CR
5May include rear-facing CRs, forward-facing CRs, and booster seats.
6If a driver under 18 years old commits a violation, he/she is subject to a higher fine of $75.
7Secondary enforcement for other seating positions.
8The fine is $60 for violators 14-17 years old.
9Louisiana HB 197 was signed by the Governor on May 29, 2012, to expand the seat belt requirement for all seating positions to include SUVs.
10Drivers in Massachusetts may be fined $25 for violating the belt law themselves and $25 for each unrestrained passenger 12-16 years old.
11The fine is $50 for violators 8-15 years old.
12Rhode Island’s primary seat belt law includes a sunset provision that will revert the law to secondary enforcement on June 30, 2013.
13In lieu of a court appearance, a first offender may pay a fine of $10; for a second or subsequent offense, the fine is $20.
14Upgraded to primary enforcement on May 23, 2013, effective July 9, 2013.
15Penalty not less than $30 or more than $75 for a violation involving children <4 years old and not less than $10 or more than $25 for children 4–8 years old.
16Not less than $10 for passenger or more than $25 for driver.
KEY: n/a = not applicable
NOTES: For the most current provisions of state seat belt laws, see the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety's Safety Belt Use Laws, available at /iihs.org/laws/SafetyBeltUse.aspx. For more information on child restraint laws, see Traffic Safety Facts Annual Report, available at www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Cats.
SOURCES: Effective Dates: Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, Highway Loss Data Institute, Safety Belt Use Laws, available at www.iihs.org/iihs/topics/t/safety-belts/topicoverview as of June 2015. Enforcement, Base fine, Seat belt required and Exemptions: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Traffic Safety Facts 2012, table 8, available at www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Cats as of June 2015.